The Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas and bordered to the north by the People’s Republic of China, and to the south, east, and west by the Republic of India.

Trips to Nepal:

Exploring the Himalayas

Langtang Ganja La Trek

The Hidden Valleys of the Khumbu & Everest Base Camp

Kathmandu is the nation’s capital and the country’s largest metropolis. Nepal has rich geography. Nepal is popular for mountaineering, containing some of the world’s highest and most challenging peaks. The mountainous north has 8 of the world’s 10 tallest mountains, including the highest point on Earth, Mount Everest 29,029ft (8848m), called Sagarmatha in Nepali. It contains more than 240 peaks over 20,000ft (6096m) above sea level. The fertile and humid south is heavily urbanized. By some measures, Hinduism is practiced by a larger majority of people in Nepal than in any other nation. Buddhism, though a minority faith in the country, is linked historically with Nepal as the birthplace of the Buddha. A monarchy throughout most of its history, Nepal was ruled by the Shah dynasty of kings from 1768, when Prithvi Narayan Shah unified its many small kingdoms. In 2006, however, a decade-long Civil War by the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) along with several weeks of mass protests by all major political parties of Nepal culminated in a peace accord, and the ensuing elections for the constituent assembly voted overwhelmingly in favor of the abdication of the last Nepali monarch Gyanendra Shah and the establishment of a federal democratic republic on May 28 2008. The first President of Nepal, Ram Baran Yadav was sworn in on July 23 2008. Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people have been living in the Himalayan region for at least 9,000 years. Nepal has been highlighted in many scriptures; small kingdoms and confederations arose in the region, from these a prince named Siddharta Gautama renounced his loyalty to lead an ascetic life and came to be known as the Buddha (“the enlightened one”). After some disputes over bordering territories with the British East India company and China, in 1923 the UK formerly recognized Nepal’s independence. In 1924 slavery was abolished, nevertheless debt bondage even involving debtor’s children has been a persistent social problem. In 1991, Bhutan expelled roughly 100,000 ethnic Nepalis, most of whom have been living in refugee camps in eastern Nepal ever since.

Entry Requirements

Nepal Visas should be obtained beforehand, but can be obtained upon arrival. US Citizens pay $40 per person for single entry for 30 days. A passport valid for six months after date of entry is required. Visitors must hold return/onward tickets and all documents required for their next destination.


Hepatitis A and B, Tetanus, and Typhoid immunizations are recommended for all travelers. Malaria prophylaxis is recommended for travel in the southern Nepal regions of Terai during the hot and rainy months. Malaria is low risk in the mountain and trekking areas. You should consult your local doctor or physician to advise which malaria medication is best suited for you. Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the CDC’s Internet site at http://www.cdc.gov/travel


Kathmandu, Nepal

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Avg High F 62 70 77 86 84 84 82 84 82 82 75 70
Avg Low F 37 35 44 48 59 66 66 66 64 55 42 35


Nepal – country code +977. Most areas will have mobile access and Internet is very limited. Some areas while trekking or on safari may not have mobile access.


India – Electrical current is 230 volts, 50Hz (Type C; electrical plug with two circular pins) (Type D; electrical plug has three circular pins) (Type M; electrical plug has three large circular pins)

Travel Advisories

Make two photocopies of valuables such as your passport, tickets, visas and travelers’ cheques.  Keep one copy with you in a separate place to the original and leave another copy with someone at home.

Be sure to inform your credit card company as well as your bank you will travel internationally into Asia. This will eliminate any credit card holds for fraudulent activity.


Carrying cash, an ATM or traveler’s check card and also a credit card that can be used for cash advances in case of emergency is advisable. The best places to exchange money are normally bureau de change, which are fast, have longer hours and often give slightly better rates than banks. Local currency is Nepalese Rupee (NPR), however most urban places accept USD. Better hotels, lodges, and camps will accept credit cards, however it is advised to withdraw cash when visiting remote areas and villages.


Nepal functions within a framework of a republic with a multi-party system. President is the head of state.


Nepal – 80% Hindu, 10% Buddhist, 4.4% Muslim, 3.6% Kirat, 0.5% Christian, and 0.4% other such as Bon.

Ethnic Groups

Nepalis are descendants of migrants from parts of earlier Greater Nepal, Tibet, India and parts of Burma and Yunnan along with native tribal population. Among the earliest inhabitants were the Kirat of east mid-region, Newar of the Kathmandu Valley and aboriginal Tharu in the malarial southern Terai region. The ancestors of the Khas migrated eastward along the Himalayan foothills out of Kashmir, Kumaon, Garhwal – parts of then Greater Nepal, Karnali Praadesh and perhaps also north from the Gangeatic Plains during invasions. Other ethnic groups trace their origins to North Burma, Yunnan and Tibet. In Terai, much of the population is physically and culturally similar to Indo-Aryans of northern India. Indo-Aryan and East Asian looking mixed people live in the hill region. Central and western Nepal ethnic Tibetans inhabit even higher semi-arid valleys north of the high Himalaya.


Nepali is the official and de facto language of Nepal and also spoken in Bhutan, parts of India and parts of Myanmar (Burma).


Nepal – an isolated, agrarian society until the mid-20th century, Nepalentered the modern era in 1951 without schools, hospitals, roads, telecommunications, electric power, industry, or civil service. The country has, however, made progress toward sustainable economic growth since the 1950’s and is committed to a program of economic liberalization. Foreign aid accounts for more than half of the development budget. Agriculture remains Nepal’s principal economic activity, employing 80% of the population and providing 37% of GDP. Only about 20% of the total area is cultivable; another 33% is forested; most of the rest is mountainous. Rice and wheat are the main food crops. The lowland Terai region produces an agricultural surplus, part of which supplies the food-deficient hill areas. Economic development in social services and infrastructure has not made dramatic progress due to GDP dependency on India. Major towns are connected to the capital by telephone and domestic air services. The export-oriented carpet and garment industries have grown rapidly in recent years and together now account for approximately 70% of merchandise exports. Nepal was ranked 29th worst country on the Global Hunger Index, between Tanzania and Kenya.


The climate of Nepal varies from warm summers with mild winters in the low-lying southern region, to alpine conditions with very severe winters in the mountains. Between December and February temperatures drop well below freezing in the mountains. The best ime to travel to Nepal for trekking is in early spring or late autumn, when the weather is dry and temperatures mild. The monsoon season on the coast occurs between June and September.