The Republic of Peru is a country in western South America. It is bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southwest by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean.
Trips to Peru:
Peruvian territory was home to the Norte Chico civilization, one of the oldest in the world, and to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty, which included most of its South American colonies. Peru achieved independence in 1821, and has undergone political unrest as well as periods of stability and economic upswing. The earliest evidence of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to approximately 9,000 years BC. In the 15th century, the Incas emerged as a powerful state. Andean societies were based on agriculture, using techniques such as irrigation and terracing; camelid husbandry and fishing were also important. Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money. In 1532, a group of conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro defeated and captured Inca Emporer Atahualpa. In the early 19th century, while most of South America was swept by wars of independence, Peru remained a royalist stronghold. Independence was achieved after military campaigns of Jose de San Martin and Simon Bolivar. Peru for decades experienced turmoil, drug trafficking and massive political violence. Upon the presidency of Alberto Fujimori, the country started to recover but still there were accusations of authoritarianism, corruption, and human rights violations, which resulted in his resignation.
The Andes mountains run parallel to the Pacific ocean and divide the country into 3 geographic regions; The coast, the highlands, and the jungle. Peru unlike other equatorial countries does not have an exclusively tropical climate, the influence of the Andes cause great climatic diversity within the country. Because of its varied geography and climate, Peru has a high biodiversity with 21,462 species of plants and animals, about one-fourth being endemic. The Peruvian government has established several protected areas for their preservation. The Incas maintain architectural achievements including the construction of Machu Picchu.