The Republic of Peru is a country in western South America. It is bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southwest by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean.

Trips to Peru:

Peru EcoCamp – 7 days

Peru EcoCamp Salkantay Trek to Machu Picchu – 9 days

Peruvian territory was home to the Norte Chico civilization, one of the oldest in the world, and to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty, which included most of its South American colonies. Peru achieved independence in  1821, and has undergone political unrest as well as periods of stability and economic upswing. The earliest evidence of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to approximately 9,000 years BC. In the 15th century, the Incas emerged as a powerful state. Andean societies were based on agriculture, using techniques such as irrigation and terracing; camelid husbandry and fishing were also important. Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money. In 1532, a group of conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro defeated and captured Inca Emporer Atahualpa. In the early 19th century, while most of South America was swept by wars of independence, Peru remained a royalist stronghold. Independence was achieved after military campaigns of Jose de San Martin and Simon Bolivar. Peru for decades experienced turmoil, drug trafficking and massive political violence. Upon the presidency of Alberto Fujimori, the country started to recover but still there were accusations of authoritarianism, corruption, and human rights violations, which resulted in his resignation.

The Andes mountains run parallel to the Pacific ocean and divide the country into 3 geographic regions; The coast, the highlands, and the jungle. Peru unlike other equatorial countries does not have an exclusively tropical climate, the influence of the Andes cause great climatic diversity within the country. Because of its varied geography and climate, Peru has a high biodiversity with 21,462 species of plants and animals, about one-fourth being endemic. The Peruvian government has established several protected areas for their preservation. The Incas maintain architectural achievements including the construction of Machu Picchu.

Entry Requirements

No visas required for Peru. A passport valid for six months after date of entry is required. Visitors must hold return/onward tickets and all documents required for their next destination.


Hepatitis A and B, Tetanus, and Typhoid immunizations are recommended for all travelers. Malaria prophylaxis is recommended if you are traveling to jungle regions and you should consult your local doctor or physician to advise which malaria medication is best suited for you. Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the CDC’s Internet site at http://www.cdc.gov/travel


Cusco, Peru

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Avg High F 65 65 66 67 67 66 66 67 68 69 69 69
Avg Low F 43 43 43 41 36 32 32 35 39 41 42 43


Peru – The international access code for Peru is +51, and the outgoing code is 00, followed by the relevant country code (e.g. 0044 for the UK). City/area codes are in use, e.g. (0)1) for Lima. A mobile phone operator provides a GSM 1900 network with coverage limited to major towns and cities. Peru is well connected to the Internet with a proliferation of inexpensive Internet kiosks, called cabinas pública, available on street corners in most towns and cities


Peru – Electrical current is 220 volts, 60Hz (Arequipa 50Hz). Two-pin, flat blade and round plugs are standard

Travel Advisories

Make two photocopies of valuables such as your passport, tickets, visas and travelers’ cheques.  Keep one copy with you in a separate place to the original and leave another copy with someone at home.

Be sure to inform your credit card company as well as your bank you will travel internationally into South America. This will eliminate any credit card holds for fraudulent activity.


Carrying cash, an ATM or traveler’s check card and also a credit card that can be used for cash advances in case of emergency is advisable. The best places to exchange money are normally bureau de change, which are fast, have longer hours and often give slightly better rates than banks. Local currency is Peruvian Nuevo Sol (PEN), and it is advised to carry hard notes of USD. Better hotels, lodges, and camps might accept credit cards, however it is advised to withdraw cash when visiting remote areas and villages.


Peru – is a constitutional republic


Roman Catholic 81.3%, Evangelical 12.5%, other 3.3%, unspecified or none 2.9%

Ethnic Groups

Peru is a multiethnic country composed of Amerindians 45%, Mestizos 37%, Europeans 15%, Afro-Peruvians 2%, Asians and others. The Andes are the heart of indigenous populations and white people are mostly found on the coast of Spanish, Italian, British, French, German, Irish, and Croation descent.


The official language is Spanish but the other predominant languages are Quechua, Aymara and Amazon languages like Urarina.


Peru has one of the stronger and fastest growing economies in the Americas. Peru is an emerging market oriented economy characterized by a high level of foreign trade and still high level of inequality, its econmy is diversified although the commodity exports is important, the trade and industry are centralized in Lima but the agricultural exports have created development in all the regions. Peru’s main exports are copper, gold, zinc, textiles, and fish meal. Peru agricultural exports are highly appreciated and include artichokes, grapes, avocados, mangoes, peppers, sugarcane, organic coffee and premium cotton. Peru has large coca leaf cultivation, while the government has reduced productions and prohibits narcotics trafficking, the industry ranges from $300-$600 million.


The climate of Peru is very diverse, with large variety of climates and microclimates, including 28 of the 32 world climates. Such a diversity is chiefly conditioned by the presence of the Andes mountains and the cold Humboldt Current. In general, the climate on the coast is subtropical with very little rainfall. The Andes mountains observe a cool-to-cold climate with rainy summers and very dry winters. The eastern lowlands present an Equatorial climate with hot weather and rain distributed all year long.